Commonly used in starter batteries for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles Lead Acid is normally a low-cost secondary battery, composed of a Lead-dioxide cathode, a sponge metallic Lead anode and a sulphuric acid solution electrolyte. The heavy metal element makes Lead Acid batteries toxic and improper disposal can be hazardous to the environment.
Disadvantages of Lead Acid batteries include
- Failure between several hundred and 2,000 cycles
- Comparatively low energy density
- Long charge time
- Careful maintenance requirements
- Sudden failure